The largest metropolitan areas are governed by metropolitan municipalities, while the rest of the country is divided into district municipalities, each of which consists of several local municipalities. Since the boundary reform at the time of the municipal election of 3 August 2016 there are eight metropolitan municipalities, 44 district municipalities and 205 local municipalities.(Image: South African Local Government Association (SALGA))Local government and municipalitiesLocal government in South Africa administers cities and smaller regions. These are known as municipalities. There are three categories of municipality.Metropolitan municipalities – defined as category A – govern the major city regions.District municipalities, category C, are for wider areas outside the cities, like counties in the US and UK.Districts are further divided into local municipalities, category B.Chapter 7 of the Constitution explains the different categories:Category A – Metropolitan: A municipality that has exclusive municipal executive and legislative authority in its area.Category B – Local: A municipality that shares municipal executive and legislative authority in its area with a category C municipality within whose area it falls.Category C – District: A municipality that has municipal executive and legislative authority in an area that includes more than one municipality. South African municipalities, grouped by province (Image: Paul Berkowitz Research)The country has 278 municipalities: eight metropolitan, 44 district and 226 local.Metropoles have a choice between two types of government: the mayoral executive system where the mayor has the authority, or the collective executive committee system.*Updated: 6 November 2015Source: South African Government Communication and Information SystemWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Chris ClaytonDTN Ag Policy EditorARLINGTON, Va. (DTN) — As USDA opens its annual Agricultural Outlook Forum, a mix of reports show steady land values holding up against lower farm income and a poor long-term outlook.In a forecast released last week, USDA sees net cash income for agriculture remaining relatively flat over the next decade as expenses steadily rise and income for crops and livestock fails to keep pace. The Minneapolis Federal Reserve highlighted farmers’ economic stress in an update last week, suggesting more farm operations are at risk of “throwing in the towel.”USDA Chief Economist Robert Johansson will detail the crop production and livestock outlook for 2019 on Thursday. Agriculture Secretary Sonny Perdue, along with the agriculture ministers of Canada and Mexico, will then hold a joint session to likely tout the prospects of the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement.The export opportunities for some crops look stunted at the moment. Ashley Hungerford of the USDA Office of the Chief Economist told leaders in the crop-insurance industry this week in San Diego that soybean stocks-to-use ratios are now so high that USDA has projected it will take several years to “unwind” or sell off those stocks, which means soybean prices are likely to be low.Hungerford pointed out that the stocks-to-use ratio was only 5% when China imposed the tariffs on U.S. farm products and is now about 20%.The forecast, factoring in current tariffs on soybeans, showed the U.S. is expected to export 2.08 billion bushels of soybeans, or 35.5% of the world market, in the 2019-20 crop year. By 2028, the U.S. could be exporting as much as 2.18 bb, but the U.S. market share will drop to 31.5% of the global market. While U.S. exports will bump up 100 million bushels, Brazil’s soybean exports will grow by 612 mb.NO ROSY PICTUREJohn Heisdorffer, an eastern Iowa farmer and chairman of the American Soybean Association, noted, “There’s no rosy picture out there, is there?” But Heisdorffer added there are at least talks between the U.S. and China going on right now.“It’s not to say China is the whole thing that is going to bring the ag economy back together, I don’t think, but at least there is talk and negotiations happening,” he said.Heisdorffer added, “I know there’s going to be a certain amount of trade we will never get back or recover from China. Once you go to somewhere else for a product, it’s just hard to get it all back.”Some recent reports out of regional Federal Reserve districts show the farm economy is stressed, but land values overall remain steady. More than half the lenders responding to a survey in the Minneapolis Fed district reported farm income fell in the fourth quarter compared to a year ago, while 10% of lenders reported income increases. The Ninth Federal Reserve District out of Minneapolis serves six states: Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, 26 counties in northwestern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.The strength of recent harvests has helped farm incomes, but the Minneapolis Fed cited some lenders are worried about the luck running out on high production. “A year of average yields with current commodity pricing would be very detrimental to our area’s farm operations,” a Minnesota banker commented.ECONOMIC STRESS RISING“We are seeing the economic stress rising significantly,” said a rural banker in Minnesota. “Producers are dealing with multiple years of economic pressure, and we are seeing more operations ‘throwing in the towel.’”The Tenth District, also known as the Kansas City Fed, cited last week that land values have dipped slightly, about 3%, for irrigated and non-irrigated cropland in the district, while values for pastureland have gone up slightly. Demand for farmland remains high for the district, which includes Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Wyoming. Farmland sales overall are down in the district, but they did increase in Kansas and Nebraska during the fourth quarter of 2018 compared to a year earlier.Farm income in the Tenth District declined for the sixth straight year, as well, and bankers in that district expect farm income to remain weak in the first quarter of 2019. Bankers reported overall lower capital spending compared to a year earlier, and about 30% of bankers said their farmer customers were cutting back household spending as well.LIQUIDITY AFFECTEDThe Kansas City Fed survey also reported that constant volume of farm loans is affecting liquidity a little more. The survey reported 15% of banks cited lower availability of loan funds compared to 9% a year earlier.In the Seventh Federal Reserve District out of Chicago, farmland values remained steady in the fourth quarter of 2018. That district includes Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, most of Michigan and the eastern two-thirds of Wisconsin. For 2018, farmland values did not rise or fall in most of the district, except for a 1% land value drop in Iowa for the year.Heisdorffer said he hasn’t seen a lot of outright land sales in his area of Iowa, but he has seen an increase in machinery auctions, which indicates to him that at least some farmers are giving up high-priced rented ground, or scaling back other acreage.“There sure are a lot more farm sales than there were,” Heisdorffer said. “Some of them are just machinery and I take that as somebody is downsizing just a bit. But I do see a lot of sales going on, a lot more than I have seen in the past couple of years. So that tells me things are tightening up.”LAND VALUES HOLDING UPFarmers National Co. noted in January that land values “have held up surprisingly well over the past few years despite lower commodity prices and much lower farm incomes compared to five years ago.” The land company said there was still a slow supply of land for sale and cash rents remain stronger than expected. Still, the company said it saw an increase in land sales over the past year.“At Farmers National Company, we are seeing an uptick in our land sales as more families and inheritors want to sell now,” said Randy Dickhut, senior vice president of real estate operations. “Within our 28-state service area, we are also seeing more landowners coming to us to market and sell their land as evidenced by our volume of land for sale increasing 21%. These landowners are just deciding now is the time to sell and capture today’s price.”Minneapolis Fed Agricultural Credit Conditions Survey: https://www.minneapolisfed.org/…Kansas City Fed: Farmland Values Stable, but Risks to Outlook Remain: https://www.kansascityfed.org/…Chicago Federal Reserve AgLetter: https://www.chicagofed.org/…**Editor’s note: DTN Political Correspondent Jerry Hagstrom contributed to this article.Chris Clayton can be reached at [email protected] him on Twitter @ChrisClaytonDTN(ES/AG)© Copyright 2019 DTN/The Progressive Farmer. All rights reserved.
Every day, marketers convince hundreds of people to spend money on useless “energy saving” gadgets. Since these marketers show no signs of going away, it’s time to highlight their products with a ten-worst list.The order of the products described in the following list is random. I had to remove an eleventh item from this list: “insulating” paints, a product category that I debunked in a recent blog. If you know of a deserving product that should have been included in this list, feel free to post nominations for the list’s second edition.In 2006, this “low-e” housewrap suffered from a disastrous launch by bumbling DuPont marketers who bragged that the “insulating” properties of the housewrap were due in part to its low emissivity. Reviewing the product for Energy Design Update, I asked ThermaWrap representatives to specify the emissivity of the membrane, only to be told that “due to company policy,” DuPont was “not at liberty to reveal the actual emissivity number for Tyvek ThermaWrap.”Later, when my journalistic investigations revealed that DuPont had failed to produce a ThermaWrap fact sheet as required by the Federal R-Value Rule, DuPont reluctantly admitted that ThermaWrap has an emissivity of 0.2 — exactly the same value that EDU predicted in its September 2006 review. The emissivity of ThermaWrap is too high to qualify as either a radiant barrier or a reflective insulation.DuPont no longer repeats its earlier claim that “Tyvek ThermaWrap changes the dynamics of heat flow across the entire wall system and dramatically helps improve the insulating value of the wall system.” In fact, if ThermaWrap is installed facing an air space, it will change the R-value of the air space from R-1 to R-2 — a change that few would characterize as “dramatic.” In response to my reporting, ThermaWrap’s product manager eventually… Sign up for a free trial and get instant access to this article as well as GBA’s complete library of premium articles and construction details. This article is only available to GBA Prime Members Start Free Trial Already a member? Log in
This Hammer & Hand video explains some of the basics of a blower door test. All of the Hammer & Hand videos, along with its Best Practices Manual, were incredibly helpful as we tried to figure out all the Passive House details related to our build. It’s no exaggeration to say that without Hammer & Hand, the Green Building Advisor website, Building Science Corporation, and 475 High Performance Building Supply, our build would’ve been impossible to accomplish on our own. I owe an incredible debt of gratitude to all of these great resources.Because of one Hammer & Hand video on the importance of properly detailing corners to avoid air leaks, I sealed all of the corners of my windows and doors so they looked like the photo below.Better safe than sorry: Pro Clima HF sealant in the corners of window and door openings was extra insurance against potential leaks.I also added some HF sealant to the lower portion of the windows, since some air leakage showed up where components of the window itself come together in a seam. Where components come together is often an area that needs special or further attention.Even with layers of redundancy in place, in the picture below there was a small air leak still present at the connection between the bottom plate and the subfloor. A bead of HF sealant took care of the problem.A bead of sealant where the bottom wall plate meets the subflooring stopped an air leak.Once the stud bays were insulated (after most of the siding was up), the interior walls would eventually be covered with Intello, adding yet another layer of protection against air intrusion. (I’ll cover the details of the Intello installation in a future post on interior insulation.)Anthony didn’t have any previous experience with a Passive House build, so it occurred to me that it might be beneficial to reach out to Floris Buisman, 475 High Performance Building Supply’s CEO who had done a WUFI analysis for us, and Mike Conners from Kenwood Property Development to see if there was someone locally who did. Mike is a Passive House builder in Chicago who had already helped me out with some Rockwool insulation when we came up short earlier in our project (the two GC’s we fired repeatedly struggled with basic math), and he was very nice to take the time to answer some other technical questions for me as well.Both, as it turned out, recommended that I contact Steve Marchese from the Association for Energy Affordability. When it was time to schedule our blower door test, I looked online and found Anthony from Building Energy Experts. He was able to come out and do a blower door test for us, helping me hunt down a couple of small leaks. We ended up at 0.34 ach50 for this initial test. Steve would eventually make three trips to the house: an initial blower door test after the structure was weather-tight and all the necessary penetrations had been made through our air barrier; a second test after exterior continuous insulation was installed; and a final test after drywall was up to ensure there hadn’t been any increase in air leakage during the final stages of construction.Following test protocolsFollowing Passive House principles for our build, we also followed the same protocols for the blower door tests: Blower Door Protocol.With the structure under pressure from the blower door fan, Steve and I walked around the house while he used a small smoke machine in order to find any leaks that I could then seal up.Steve started testing at the windows. Here, he checks a window gasket for any leaks.The gaskets around our windows and doors proved to be some of the weakest areas in the house although, comparatively speaking, it was inconsequential since the overall airtightness of the structure was fairly robust (favorite word of architects).Steve showed me the impact a window in the unlocked position can have on airtightness. When compressed in the locked position, the gasket forms a tight seal between the sash and the frame.Small irregularities can make a difference. Even though no substantial air leakage showed up around our kitchen door during our first winter, this same door eventually had ice form outside at the upper corner by the hinges on the exposed surface of the gasket where the door meets the frame. After figuring out how to adjust the door hinges, there was no ice showing up this winter, not even during our Polar Vortex event in late January.Much the same thing occurred around our front door as well, with the same solution — adjusting the hinges to get a tighter fit at the gasket between the door and the frame eliminated the problem.Steve was nice enough to go around and methodically check all the penetrations in the structure.There was one area in the guest bathroom where the Intello membrane in the ceiling ended up getting slightly wrinkled in a corner during installation. With Tescon Vana and some HF sealant I was able to address it so nothing, thankfully, showed up during the smoke test.Steve tests an area of the Intello membrane that had become wrinkled during installation.After looking around on the main floor, Steve moved down into the basement. He checked for leaks at the main electrical panel where the conduit exists the house, around the sump pit lid, and where the pipes from the Zehnder ERV exited the structure.The lids for the sump pit and the ejector pit were eventually sealed with duct seal putty and some Prosoco Air Dam, as shown in the photo below.The sump pit was sealed with putty.Final resultsHere’s a copy of Steve’s blower door test results. (He was mistaken on one detail: the report shows that drywall had not been installed in February although it had.) For the last two tests Steve used a smaller duct blaster fan in order to try and get a more precise reading for air leakage, using a technique explained in this article from The Journal of Light Construction.Steve would be back two more times — once before drywall, and once after drywall — just to ensure we had no loss of airtightness develop in the interim stages of the build (especially after continuous exterior insulation with furring strips were installed).Results from the first test were 0.21 ach50, 111 [email protected] For the second test, he got 0.2047 ach50, 108 [email protected], and for the third and final test, the figures were 0.20 ach50 and 106 cfm50.We are well below Passive House requirements (both PHI and PHIUS), so there was a great sense of relief knowing that all the time and effort put into air sealing had paid off, giving us the tight shell we were looking for. Even so, it was still pretty exciting news, especially for a first build.And here’s an interesting article by 475 High Performance Building Supply regarding the debate over how airtightness is calculated for PHI vs. PHIUS projects, and the potential ramifications: Not Airtight.Other posts by Eric Whetzel:Choosing and Installing a Ductless MinisplitInstalling an ERVChoosing WindowsAttic InsulationInstalling an Airtight Attic HatchAir Sealing the Exterior SheathingInstalling a Solar Electric SystemPrepping for a Basement SlabBuilding a Service CoreAir Sealing the Attic FloorVentilation BafflesUp on the RoofA Light Down BelowKneewalls, Subfloor and Exterior WallsLet the Framing BeginDetails for an Insulated FoundationThe Cedar Siding is Here — Let’s Burn ItAn Introduction to a New Passive House Project RELATED ARTICLESBlower Door BasicsIs it Time to Move Away From ACH @50 Pascals?Joe Lstiburek’s Airtightness GoalsMeeting the Airtightness ChallengeBlower Door Testing
SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion MOST READ NU trounces JRU Hotel management clarifies SEAG footballers’ kikiam breakfast issue Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Lacson: 2019 budget delay due to P75-B House ‘insertion’ Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next View comments TS Kammuri to enter PAR possibly a day after SEA Games opening LOOK: Joyce Pring goes public with engagement to Juancho Triviño Petron and F2 Logistics were locked in Game 2 of their PSL AFC best-of-three title series at press time.Coach Joven Racelis said La Salle learned valuable lessons facing tough UAAP teams who, he admitted, intimidated the members of his team.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSUrgent reply from Philippine football chief“We were star-struck and very conscious [before], and fortunately we faced a team which we think is in equal footing with us,” said Racelis. “So I told the players, let’s just get the experience and make the most out of it.”Joven added: “This is something we cherish no matter what, because we played in a semi-professional league and our last game at MOA Arena.” Is Luis Manzano planning to propose to Jessy Mendiola? LATEST STORIES SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss La Salle-Dasmariñas finally broke into the win column after downing Colegio San Agustin-Biñan, 25-23, 25-18, 21-25, 25-16, Tuesday night in the Philippine Superliga Collegiate Grand Slam (CGS) at Mall of Asia Arena.Eunice Castillo and Cyrille Ramos and powered the Lady Patriots with 16 and 14 points, respectively, as they nailed their only win in the CGS, which is being played simultaneously with the PSL All-Filipino Conference.ADVERTISEMENT